For the region in Colombia, see, Gerlach: Marine Pollution, Springer, Berlin (1975), List of ports and harbors of the Pacific Ocean, "Deepest Submarine Dive in History, Five Deeps Expedition Conquers Challenger Deep", "CONFIRMED: Horizon Deep Second Deepest Point on the Planet", "Catholic Encyclopedia : Ferdinand Magellan", https://www.livescience.com/29533-the-worlds-biggest-oceans-and-seas.html, "Library Acquires Copy of 1507 Waldseemüller World Map – News Releases (Library of Congress)", https://www.guampedia.com/ferdinand-magellan/, "Charles Darwin's Travels on the HMS Beagle", "A Physical, Historical, Political, & Descriptive Geography", "This ocean has most of the islands in the world", National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council, "PWLF.org – The Pacific WildLife Foundation – The Pacific Ocean", "Wind Driven Surface Currents: Equatorial Currents Background", "ENSO: Recent Evolution, Current Status and Predictions", Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory – Hurricane Research Division, "Frequently Asked Questions: When is hurricane season? The French explored and settled Polynesia, and the British made three voyages with James Cook to the South Pacific and Australia, Hawaii, and the North American Pacific Northwest. , Extending approximately 15,500 km (9,600 mi) from the Bering Sea in the Arctic to the northern extent of the circumpolar Southern Ocean at 60°S (older definitions extend it to Antarctica's Ross Sea), the Pacific reaches its greatest east–west width at about 5°N latitude, where it stretches approximately 19,800 km (12,300 mi) from Indonesia to the coast of Colombia—halfway around the world, and more than five times the diameter of the Moon. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean (or, depending on definition, to Antarctica) in the south and is bounded by the continents of Asia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east. Typically, the depth of the Pacific basin is only 1.8 to 2.5 mi (3 to 4 km), so the horizontal dimension of the basin is about 1,000 times greater than its vertical dimension. , The andesite line is the most significant regional distinction in the Pacific. , The climate patterns of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres generally mirror each other. < Module:Location map | data/Pacific Ocean यह Module:Location map/data/Pacific Ocean हेतु प्रलेख पृष्ठ है प्रशांत महासागर का अवस्थिति मानचित्र The Pacific Ocean is the only ocean which is mostly bounded by subduction zones. Because of the pattern of major mountain systems of the globe, a relatively small proportion (one-seventh) of the total continental drainage enters the Pacific—a total drainage area of less than about three times the total area of Australia. To explore the ocean, the player has access to scuba suits and two submarines: the Submersible and the Kraken.  After navy visits to Easter Island in 1875 and 1887, Chilean navy officer Policarpo Toro negotiated the incorporation of the island into Chile with native Rapanui in 1888. , The Pacific Ocean has most of the islands in the world. A geologically important boundary between the continental, or “high,” islands and the numerous truly oceanic, or “low,” islands of the Pacific is the Andesite Line, a region of intense volcanic and seismic activity. , As the Pacific straddles the 180th meridian, the West Pacific (or western Pacific, near Asia) is in the Eastern Hemisphere, while the East Pacific (or eastern Pacific, near the Americas) is in the Western Hemisphere.. ", Samson, Jane. In the eastern Pacific the Cocos Ridge extends southwestward from the Central American isthmus to the Galapagos Islands. The Indonesian Seaway (including the Strait of Malacca and Torres Strait) joins the Pacific and the Indian Ocean to the west, and Drake Passage and the Strait of Magellan link the Pacific with the Atlantic Ocean on the east. Similar processes form coatings, called manganese crusts, on the rock surfaces of seamounts. Pacific Ocean major ports map. The water near the equator, which can have a salinity as low as 34 parts per thousand, is less salty than that found in the mid-latitudes because of abundant equatorial precipitation throughout the year. Its waters reach Oceania and Asia in the west, and i… , The Martin Waldseemüller map of 1507 was the first to show the Americas separating two distinct oceans. , Important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. A belt of diatom ooze occurs between latitudes 45° and 60° S and across the North Pacific, between Japan and Alaska. On a worldwide scale, May is the least active month, while September is the most active month. Of the rivers that drain into the Pacific, those of China and Southeast Asia are of the greatest importance; the basins of those rivers support more than one-fourth of the world’s population. Spain also sent expeditions to the Pacific Northwest, reaching Vancouver Island in southern Canada, and Alaska. ", Routledge, David. The numerous small islands of Micronesia lie mainly north of the Equator and to the west of the 180° meridian. “The Asia-Pacific Idea: Reality and Representation in the Invention of a Regional Structure,”, Dixon, Chris, and David Drakakis-Smith. Latitude: 0° 00' 0.00" N Longitude:-160° 00' 0.00" W Read about Pacific Ocean in the Wikipedia Satellite map of Pacific Ocean in Google Maps Read about Pacific Ocean in the Wikipedia Satellite map of Pacific Ocean in Google Maps As it approaches the Chilean coast, the South Equatorial Current divides; one branch flows around Cape Horn and the other turns north to form the Peru or Humboldt Current. Geologically, they consist partly of sedimentary rocks, and their structures are similar to those of the coastal mountain ranges of the adjacent continent. The Great Barrier Reef in Australia is the largest … They cover large areas of the ocean floor in the Pacific. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Calcareous globigerina ooze occurs in the shallower parts of the South Pacific, the dissolving power of the seawater at great depths being sufficient to dissolve calcareous material to such an extent that these oozes are not generally found at depths in excess of about 15,000 feet (4,600 metres). Projection: Lambert azimuthal equal-area projection. , Marine debris, also known as marine litter, is human-created waste that has ended up floating in a lake, sea, ocean, or waterway. The Pacific Ocean is home to Point Nemo, a pole of inaccessibility that marks the furthest location from the ocean to the nearest coastline. Where is the Puerto Rico Trench? “The Pacific Asian Region: Myth or Reality?”. On the abyssal plains, where sediments accumulate slowly, chemical and biological processes lead to the formation of metal-bearing coatings around objects such as the ear bones of fishes. Apart from the narrow coastal zone of the eastern region and the broad continental seas of the western region, the Pacific is floored with pelagic (oceanic) material derived from the remains of marine plants and animals that once inhabited the waters lying above. The wind and pressure systems of the Pacific conform closely to the planetary system—the patterns of air pressure and the consequent wind patterns that develop in the atmosphere of the Earth as a result of its rotation (Coriolis force) and the inclination of its axis (ecliptic) toward the Sun. As the only known entrance from the Atlantic, the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. In the northern and western Pacific the Andesite Line follows close to seaward the trend of the island arcs from the Aleutians southward to the Yap and Palau arcs, thence eastward through the Bismarck, Solomon, and Santa Cruz archipelagoes, and thence southward through the Samoa, Tonga, and Chatham groups and Macquarie Island to Antarctica. The Pacific Ocean is located between North America and Asia, while the Atlantic Ocean is opposite it between North America, South America, Africa and Europe. , Fish are an important economic asset in the Pacific. The large series of volcanoes (some active) encircling the Pacific Ocean are referred to as being part of the Ring of Fire, and notorious for frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. The western, or Asiatic, coastal boundary, in contrast, is irregular. In 1768, Pierre-Antoine Véron, a young astronomer accompanying Louis Antoine de Bougainville on his voyage of exploration, established the width of the Pacific with precision for the first time in history. The Hawaiian Ridge extends westward from Hawaii to the 180° meridian. Pacific Ocean, body of salt water extending from the Antarctic region in the south to the Arctic in the north and lying between the continents of Asia and Australia on the west and North and South America on the east.  He named it Mar del Sur (literally, "Sea of the South" or "South Sea") because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. ", Korhonen, Pekka. from the Pacific Ocean, which is the only ocean where the fish catch has increased every year since 1978. One of the most dramatic is the Great Barrier Reef off northeastern Australia with chains of reef patches. The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.  Since the end of World War II, many former colonies in the Pacific have become independent states. The Japanese-ruled Northern Mariana Islands came under the control of the United States.  A climatological low in the Gulf of Alaska keeps the southern coast wet and mild during the winter months. Magellan called the ocean Pacífico (or "Pacific" meaning, "peaceful") because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters. "The Pacific Age in World History,", "Recent Literature in Discovery History.  The lands around the Pacific Rim are full of volcanoes and often affected by earthquakes. These include the Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain and the Louisville Ridge. The ocean is shown as a large body of water that surrounds southern San Andreas. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. The eastern Pacific region, which extends southward from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, is relatively narrow and is associated with the American cordilleran system of almost unbroken mountain chains, the coastal ranges of which rise steeply from the western shores of North and South America. To Magellan, it seemed much more calm (pacific) than the Atlantic. , The 18th century marked the beginning of major exploration by the Russians in Alaska and the Aleutian Islands, such as the First Kamchatka expedition and the Great Northern Expedition, led by the Danish Russian navy officer Vitus Bering. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means "peaceful sea". From the Latin meaning “no one”, Point Nemo got its name from Jules Verne’s Captain Nemo who roams the oceans in his submarine.  The South Equatorial Current, flowing west along the equator, swings southward east of New Guinea, turns east at about 50°S, and joins the main westerly circulation of the South Pacific, which includes the Earth-circling Antarctic Circumpolar Current.  The Pacific also contains the deepest point in the Southern Hemisphere, the Horizon Deep in the Tonga Trench, at 10,823 meters (35,509 feet). ", Dirlik, Arif. The high cost of recovering offshore oil and gas, combined with The excess of oxygen-depleting chemicals in the water leads to hypoxia and the creation of a dead zone. Some of these islands are structurally associated with nearby continents. On the western side of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines. In addition, in the enhance… The North Equatorial Current, driven westward along latitude 15°N by the trade winds, turns north near the Philippines to become the warm Japan or Kuroshio Current. The Hawaiian archipelago consists of about 2,000 islands, although the term Hawaiian Islands is usually applied to the small group that lies at the eastern end of the archipelago.  The oldest Pacific Ocean floor is only around 180 Ma old, with older crust subducted by now.. Southern Ocean, the southern portions of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans and their tributary seas surrounding Antarctica. It joins the Atlantic Ocean at a line drawn south from Cape Horn, Chile/Argentina to Antarctica, and joins the Indian Ocean at a line drawn south from … To determine the phase of ENSO, the most recent three-month sea surface temperature average for the area approximately 3,000 km (1,900 mi) to the southeast of Hawaii is computed, and if the region is more than 0.5 °C (0.9 °F) above or below normal for that period, then an El Niño or La Niña is considered in progress.. Director, Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1971–77. , Marine pollution is a generic term for the harmful entry into the ocean of chemicals or particles.  Salinity also varies latitudinally, reaching a maximum of 37 parts per thousand in the southeastern area. Mountainous coastline of the eastern Pacific Ocean, Big Sur, California. Another unique feature of the Pacific Ocean is its large number of seamounts, particularly in the Northwest and Central Pacific Basins. Its greatest longitudinal extent measures some 12,000 miles (19,300 km) along latitude 5° N, between the coasts of Colombia in South America and the Malay Peninsula in Asia. "Pacific history as seen from the Pacific Islands. Red or brown radiolarian ooze is found along the zone of the Pacific North Equatorial Current, east of longitude 170° W, and on the floors of some deep Indonesian basins. "Pacific/Oceanic History" in, Stillman, Amy Ku‘uleialoha. Pollution such as sewage, runoff from land and toxic waste; habitat destruction; over-fishing; and climate change leading to sea level rise, ocean acidification and warming will all interact to damage the ocean’s ecology and coastal economies. The floor of the northeastern Pacific is remarkable for its several major fracture zones, which extend east and west and which, in some instances, are identifiable over distances of thousands of miles. , Islands in the Pacific Ocean are of four basic types: continental islands, high islands, coral reefs and uplifted coral platforms. There are about 25,000 islands in the Pacific Ocean. In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality. 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