textus receptus vs critical text

8 The grass withers, the flower fades, As an aside – because the KJV is often central to the Confessional Position – it’s worth noting that the KJV wasn’t translated from any one single text. Remember their #1 rule was “Older is better”. In verse three it refers to head as chief or lord (God the Father is head of Christ, Christ is head of man, and man is head of woman). They range in date from those made by the original scribes in the fourth century to ones made in the twelfth century. The differences between the two texts are many and important. Click here for instructions on how to enable JavaScript in your browser. He examined eighteen editions of the Textus Receptus to find the correct Greek rendering, and made the changes to his Greek text. And that’s not all the singular readings. However, we’ll only concentrate on the two most influential. That begs the question: “Where did it come from?”  The answer is in the name: it comes from a (man-made) confession of faith. Their rules for textual Criticism are below: (Note: I condensed these from here, at the bottom of the page.). 7 Thou shalt keep them, O LORD, thou shalt preserve them from this generation for ever. Allen notes that “the actual text of Hippocrates in Galen’s day was essentially the same as that of the mediaeval MSS … [just as] the text of [Homer in] the first century B.C. The Majority Text theory is that to a “T”. Apparently, the note-writer regarded Codex Vaticanus as a museum-piece to be protected and preserved, rather than as a copy of Scripture to be used as such. At this point I could quite easily quote from any number of dictionaries, ancient and modern, to show that both is always two. Most modern translations are based on an edition of the Nestle-Aland/United Bible Society (NA/UBS) text. Answer: The Critical Text is a Greek text of the New Testament that draws from a group of ancient Greek manuscripts and their variants in an attempt to preserve the most accurate wording possible. Paulson’s data: I emphasize that these numbers – showing that five important early manuscripts combine to produce a total of 706 singular readings – only taking the text of Matthew into consideration. It is a corruption of the text. (Or that other manuscripts were destroyed, which we’ll look at more in a minute.). Surely the people are grass. Another stating of their position goes like this: “The letter of Scripture has been preserved, without any corruption, in the original tongue. I’m going to re-quote something we looked at earlier. Notice too, that – in Homer – the shorter Alexandrian “text type” was regarded to be the result of “scholarly revision”. These Textual Variants have a good chance of being original (viable), and change the meaning of the text (meaningful). The Critical text would invariably argue the point saying something like, “Well, you cant really know what the original manuscript written by the pen of Luke said”. Consequently, their New Testament relied heavily on the two earliest (nearly) complete manuscripts we have: Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticus, which we’ll look at in detail shortly, Since these were the two oldest (nearly) complete texts available at the time, Westcott & Hort gave them tremendous weight. Currently you have JavaScript disabled. Notice, he specifically said “the law”. Since the rules are so central to their philosophy, we’ll take some time to examine them. (In most cases, more on that in a minute). Now that we have a basic overview, we’ll look at each theory in (exhaustive) detail. Between these extremes, a “medium” or “vulgate” text exists. There are only two reasons for this: (1) it’s nearly complete, (2) the “older is better” mantra. 2 For his merciful kindness is great toward us: and the truth of the LORD endureth for ever. Hmm, could “the Word” here be Jesus? The KJV NT was based on 25 manuscripts, as did the NKJV. It’s get clearer in a few verses, and even clearer when you read 1 Peter 1. 10 For this cause the woman ought to have authority over her own head, because of the angels. Nevertheless the Hortian text has not been overthrown. The modern Critical Text is based primarily on two flawed documents, without the benefit of the findings of the last ~140 years. However, I would only make that the starting point. Other Greek texts besides the Critical Text used for producing English Bibles are the Majority Text and the Textus Receptus. It’s currently in its 28th edition (as of spring 2020). This is based on the assumption that scribes will chose to copy good manuscripts over bad ones, and thus better readings will be in the majority over time. We know God preserved the scriptures because even in the New Testament, over 99% of the Textual Variants have no effect on anything. However, we don’t have to guess, as Peter – under the Holy Spirit’s inspiration” – explicitly applied this passage to Jesus. 11 He will feed His flock like a shepherd; Her head or her own head is just that. 6 The voice said, “Cry out!” Any insights would be appreciated. Clearly, it’s the judgements that are enduring, not “the word”. The Confessional view holds that God must have preserved the scriptures completely without error. The modern NA27 and NA28 are closer to Westcott & Hort’s 1881 text than the NA25. These singular reading disappeared, never to be seen again. While the two definitely share similarities, but they definitely aren’t the same. These two documents are rather flawed, especially Sinaiticus. They range from the alteration of a single letter to the insertion of whole sentences. The reconstruction of a stemma of readings for each variant (the genealogical principle) is an extremely important device, because the reading which can most easily explain the derivation of the other forms is itself most likely the original. This consideration … revives the view … that the Homeric vulgate was in existence before the Alexandrian period… [Such] compels us to assume a central, average, or vulgate text. From that point forward, the Roman Catholic Church preferred to keep their manuscript tradition in Latin rather than Greek. Westcott & Hort believed that any place where those two manuscripts agreed: “…should be accepted as the true readings until strong internal evidence is found to the contrary,”. Let’s back up to get some context. For context, a “singular reading” is a Textual Variant that appears in only one manuscript and no other manuscripts whatsoever. The criticism of the Homeric epics proceeds on much the same line. The King James Bible is a translation of an edition of the Greek New Testament text called the Textus Receptus. However, that not necessarily the case. 1 John 2:7. But the principle remains that the Vaticanus scribe certainly wasn’t top tier. There are differences, but they aren’t large (relatively speaking). The shorter form in Homer is considered to reflect Alexandrian critical know-how and scholarly revision applied to the text; the Alexandrian text of the NT is clearly shorter, has apparent Alexandrian connections, and may well reflect recensional activity. (Greek words often have similar endings because of the nature of the Greek language.) But I have a couple of problems with that. (Each had several editions; I’ve only included the relevant ones for clarity). The Bible: 66 books vs 73 and Why (the “Apocrypha” Explained), Lobegott Friedrich Constantin (von) Tischendorf, You can read Tischendorf’s entire account of finding it – in his own words – here. I have yet to hear of a person who holds the Confessional Position who doesn’t chose the “Textus Receptus” as the text that was “kept pure in all ages”. It’s a great tool for those who don’t know Greek or Hebrew, and a very useful tool even if you do. They have several verses they use to support this (which we’ll look at in a moment). Part 2 focuses more on the actual methodology. They also discounted the entire Byzantine text type based on an assumption which has now been proved wrong. The 1894 TR would be Scrivener’s, which is an attempt to make a Greek New Testament which is identical to the KJV. (You can look at several here.) Exactly. Because of this, there are nearly no Greek manuscripts from the west. The fact is, the Critical text says “both” where is shouldn’t! I’m almost hesitant to include this, as it comes close to an Ad Hominem attack on the entire Alexandrian Text type/family. This is easiest to explain with an example. The fact that the Byzantine Text type dominates the manuscript copies is proof of disproportionate copying. The practice of Textual Criticism is not “criticizing the Bible“, it’s trying to recover the Bible’s original text. If you ask most people, the “Textus Receptus” is the Greek text assembled by Erasmus from which the King James Version was translated. Now, because all the oldest manuscripts we’ve found are of the Alexandrian text type/family, it’s unsurprising that they ended up with a basically Alexandrian document. I suppose we could debate what would constitute a “real difference”. This is a big difference. The WEB reads like a smooth ASV in the New Testament. I must admit it took me 2 evenings to seriously digest the information, take notes, cross reference and meditate on the essay. Because if you apply the same reasoning to Messianic prophecies in Psalms, it will show that those texts actually apply to David, not Jesus, etc. First, remember that the worst manuscript at the 5th generation has exactly – and only – 5 mistakes (one added every generation). However, the King James Translators used the 1525-1525 Masoretic Text by Daniel Bomberg as the basis for the Old Testament. (And before you bring up Hebrews 4:12, realize that in context it’s talking about Jesus there too). To this I reply, “I think Luke knows that if he is writing a story about seven guys, he would not use a word which clearly means two guys.”. Not perfect by any stretch and it definitely has mistakes, but very good overall. Ironically, Westcott & Hort recognized this too. Wow, great article. Plus, there are papyrus fragments from quite early that contain Byzantine readings, though often mixed with the other text types. For a sense of scale, we’ve already seen that (doing the math and estimating) there are ~6470 textual variations between the Codex Vaticanus and Codex Vaticanus. For many are called, but few chosen.”, Matthew 20:16 New Revised Standard Version, Anglicised (NRSVA) The existence of these “singular readings” disproves the myth of the tenacity of errors completely. It was not until 1881 that two Cambridge scholars, B. F. Westcott and F. J. One issue, a minor one, the majority of Greek manuscripts show the content of Romans 16:25-27 actually belongs in 14:24-26. To condense/paraphrase verses 9-10: “woman was made for man, so she must be under male authority.” Contextually, that makes perfect sense. Neither survives through the ages well. As we’ve seen, the Byzantine Text type is significantly longer than the Alexandrian Text type. Presumably the scribes didn’t keep the errors because they recognized them as errors. Combined with the ones that aren’t meaningful, you have over 99% of all Textual Variants make no impact on meaning whatsoever. To be clear, the theory of Reasoned Eclecticism is very sound; it’s the application of it (thus far) that leaves something to be desired. He put the universal Catholic epistles before Paul’s so the beginning and ending letters of all of the epistles would form a mathematical pattern. My personal opinion is that the Majority text is an excellent starting point. Why? 19. The Majority Text differs from the Textus Receptus in almost 2,000 places. Majority Text scholars take a more mathematical approach to deciding what the original text of the New Testament was. You can read Tischendorf’s entire account of finding it – in his own words – here. Metzger translated these words as, “Fool and knave, can’t you leave the old reading alone, and not alter it!”  Another rendering:  “Untrained troublemaker, forgive the ancient [reading]; do not convert it.”  He re-wrote Φανερων, erasing most of the corrector’s Φερων. which is every-thing in red. The Greek word ‘epi’ when used with the genitive as in ‘tēs kephalē’ means over or upon. The NKJV reads: For this reason the woman ought to have a symbol of authority on her head, because of the angels. Now, the first document to be called “Textus Receptus” – was published in 1633. Later it was taken over by his son, and eventually by Kurt Aland and his wife, along with others. You who bring good tidings, I think I’m gonna get either the NKJV or NASB. Therefore, ~130 pages were going to be burned. It was a printed text, not a hand-copied manuscript, created in the 15th century to fill the need for a textually accurate Greek New Testament. Majority Greek Text vs. Modern Versions ... also called the Novum Testamentum Graece or Critical Text. And so saying, he took down from the corner of the room a bulky kind of volume, wrapped up in a red cloth, and laid it before me. The effect of the Textus Receptus on the accuracy of the King James Version. Just be careful that you aren’t “teaching as doctrines the precepts of men.”. Other examples include when one manuscript has “Jesus Christ”, and another has “Christ Jesus”, with only the order changed. I unrolled the cover, and discovered, to my great surprise, not only those very fragments which, fifteen years before, I had taken out of the basket, but also other parts of the Old Testament, the New Testament complete, and, in addition, the Epistle of Barnabas and a part of the Pastor of Hermas. And no matter how you read it, “both” never means “seven”. The KJV reads: For this cause ought the woman to have power on her head because of the angels. A vast number of early manuscripts were destroyed in the early persecutions of the Church. The Textus Receptus is the textual basis behind KJV and NKJV. 23 having been born again, not of corruptible seed but incorruptible, through the word of God which lives and abides forever. Now this is the Word (Jesus yet again) which by the gospel was preached to you. Codex Vaticanus (“B”) is an excellent example of the Alexandrian Text type, and many scholars think it’s the most important Greek manuscript we have (again, because it’s the oldest.) Any form of eclecticism which accepts this principle will hardly succeed in establishing the original text of the New Testament; it will only confirm the view of the text which it presupposes. Frosty Puritan Board Sophomore. This is a big difference. Thank you for your hard work. The main source for Beza’s New Testament was Robert Estienne’s 1550 Greek New Testament. It has significant downsides which we’ll look at after the “pro” side. Rather, decisions in textual criticism must be worked out afresh, passage by passage (the local principle). The Textus Receptus is the textual basis behind KJV and NKJV. No other early manuscript of the Christian Bible has been so extensively corrected, They range from the alteration of a single letter to the insertion of whole sentences, That gross blunder, whereby a clause is omitted because it happens to end in the same word as the clause preceding, occurs no less than, Vaticanus has 197 particular readings, while Sinaiticus has 443, together with the Codex Sinaiticus, as they have the same, are the only two manuscripts that share that characteristic, the differences among the manuscripts [of the Gospels] have become great. A woman’s long hair is the symbol of authority, and notice that feminists almost universally have short(er) hair. word “text” to the second, Treating the Textus Receptus as if it is the original text resolves the question, “If God inspired the … ), Westcott & Hort preferred to take manuscripts they deemed as “more reliable” (read: “early and Alexandrian”) and rely of their readings more. So the Textus Receptus is definitely a Byzantine text, but far from a purely Byzantine text. However, this can be easily disproved using common sense and touch of data. However, there’s a very big problem when someone makes a dogmatic doctrinal position without the support of scripture. More importantly, it’s patently unbiblical. However, a significant number of variants can be explained by this simple scribal error. Now that we know what Greek text the Confessional Position uses, let’s take a closer look at the various scriptural passages they use to support the doctrine of Preservation (which says God kept His Scriptures “pure in all ages”). F.H.A. 9 O Zion, Others would say that a person can quite easily teach any biblical truth from either Greek text. From that point forward, the Roman Catholic Church preferred to keep their manuscript tradition in Latin rather than Greek. I know too much Greek to accept something that was (seemingly) intentionally mistranslated. However, truly understand these verses, we need to consider the context. One scholar said of the Western text type: “Words and even clauses are changed, omitted, and inserted with surprising freedom, wherever it seemed that the meaning could be brought out with greater force and definiteness.”  Unsurprisingly, they aren’t given too much weight because of this freeness. And it means: So, “truth” in the KJV isn’t unwarranted, but hardly the primary meaning. Who wouldn’t want to have a Bible in which “nothing was corrupt”? The single most common textual variant is called a “moveable Nu“, with “Nu” being the Greek letter which sounds like our “N”. Please can you help? The context and the discussion of a covering as a symbol over or upon the woman’s head makes this clear. Now some might object by saying the King James translators used a better source document. That her warfare is ended, They ignored all Byzantine readings and rejected them as being later and therefore not worth looking at. It was shockingly balanced, very respectful, and based upon facts. Every other modern translation I’m aware of – including the NASB – uses the Masoretic text also. It was the most commonly used text type for Protestant denominations. 18 For assuredly, I say to you, till heaven and earth pass away, one jot or one tittle will by no means pass from the law till all is fulfilled. How could anyone even ask such a question? “Any uncertainty is 100% uncertainty”…  Right? Acts 19:16  (ASV) And the man in whom the evil spirit was leaped on them, and mastered both of them, and prevailed against them, so that they fled out of that house naked and wounded. We’ll talk more about this later. The reading that explains the existence of other readings should be preferred. (3) In "Hodges versus Hodges" five points were noted: (a) The statistical demons… The Elzevir 1633 text promised just that in their marketing. This is usually the position taken by Majority Text advocates to explain why there are no purely Byzantine manuscripts in the early centuries. Many claim it was “found in the trash” while other claim it was carefully preserved by monks. Now, let’s look at the arguments against the Majority Text. There is absolutely no support, whether Greek or English, to the contrary. However important the early papyri, or a particular uncial, or a minuscule may be, the total number of full disagreements in the 28th edition of. I spent much of my (unfinished) series on marriage unpacking how this rebellious idea has catastrophic results when put into practice. ), “It is in fact easier to find two consecutive verses in which these two MSS differ the one from the other, than two consecutive verses in which they entirely agree.”. It does not bear the stamp of divine preservation. I humbly suggest trying The Rock of Ages and The Stone That The Builders Rejected. Again, this is because of his “earlier is better” philosophy. To be sure that’s not politically correct, but that’s what the passage is saying and the Bible is very consistent on this. Thanks for all the hard work! All the modern Greek Critical Texts bear an extremely strong resemblance to Westcott & Hort’s original 1881 Critical Text. According to Textus Receptus Bibles (.com), there are no less than 27 different versions of the Textus Receptus! Most people who hold the Confessional Position would say that a Bible from other Greek texts (such as the Majority Text or Critical Text) contain the scriptures, just not all of them. 5 “Because of the devastation of the afflicted, because of the groaning of the needy, VIII. The edition most closely followed by them was Beza’s edition of 1598, but they departed from this edition for the reading in some other published Greek text at least 170 times, and in at least 60 places, the KJV translators abandoned all then-existing printed editions of the Greek New Testament, choosing instead to follow precisely the reading in the Latin Vulgate version. The question then becomes: If you take the Majority Text theory and apply it to modern times, then there’s clearly more copies of the modern Critical Text than the Majority Text. Now, I repeat, both of these translations are accurate representatives of the two Greek texts. Further, The Greek lends more clarity on this. Now that you understand the three text types/families, we’ll move onto discussing the most popular of the three theories. I even purchased an interlinear bible because I wanted to know what was really said. It is her own head that she carries on her shoulders. This method applies a series of rules to the various manuscripts we’ve found (we’ll look at those rules in a moment). They did have some very solid points! It was a simple scribal error, easily noticed and just as easily corrected. By an Alexandrian Church father’s own admission, manuscripts in Alexandria by 200 AD were already corrupt. Av ” for short. ). ” heard it read, you ’ ll add verse for. 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