Studies also show that the use of celebrities in campaigns is linked to various strategies. The incorporation of Jamie Oliver (well known as television celebrity The Naked Chef) into the promotions of one of Britain’s leading grocery chains … For data analysis, we used ANOVA. JAR is published four times a year for the Advertising Research Foundation by WARC. Views on the Business of Brands. Ronay, R., & von Hippe, W. 2010. The final sample of this study was 236 people. Keel, A. and Nataraajan, R. (2012), “Celebrity endorsements and beyond: new avenues for celebrity branding”, Psychology & Marketing, Vol. (2012), “Celebrities in advertising: looking for congruence or likability?”, Psychology & Marketing, Vol. 159-173. Journal of Consumer Research, 16 (3), 310. doi:10.1086/209217 Muda, M., Musa, R., Mohamed, R. N., & Borhan, H. (2014). 2, pp. We investigated the effectiveness of such endorsements by meta-analyzing 46 studies published until April 2016 involving 10,357 participants. 740-759. 13-23. Celebrity endorsement is a type of channel in brand communication through which a celebrity acts as the brand‟s spokesperson and certifies the brand‟s claim and position by extending his/her personality, popularity and status in the society or expertise in the field to the brand. 3, pp. 6 No. 1, pp. On Marketing Contributor. (2007), “Effects of celebrity athlete endorsement on attitude towards the product: the role of credibility, attractiveness and the concept of congruence”, International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship, Vol. 22 No. Luo, L., Chen, X., Han, J. and Park, C.W. 391-414. Langmeye, L., Walker, M. (1991), A first step to identify the meaning in celebrity endorsers, Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Boosted by celebrity endorsements and a controversial research program, clinics are peddling stem cell autism treatments questioned by experts Tom Porter Jan 13, 2021, 17:48 IST 11, No. 4, pp. 8 No. However, in examining the effect of the endorsement on the weak candidate, it is perceived that the evaluation rises to the same level as the other candidate when the endorsing celebrity is evaluated positively. Knoll and Matthes (2017) suggest that future studies should focus precisely on the conditions under which the endorsement effect may change: for example, endorsement of non-conventional products (Myrick and Evans, 2014), endorsement of persons (Van Steenburg, 2015), non-profit endorsement (Wheeler, 2009) and endorsement in emerging countries (Chou, 2014) such as China, India or Brazil, all factors which will be addressed in this study. 3, pp. When consumers believe that the endorser reflects their idealized self-concept and self-image, the evaluation of the advertisement is positive and increases product purchase intentions (Choi and Rifon, 2012). 47 No. Rice, D.H., Kelting, K. and Lutz, R.J. (2012), “Multiple endorsers and multiple endorsements: the influence of message repetition, source congruence and involvement on brand attitudes”, Journal of Consumer Psychology, Vol. For example, in Study 2, the endorser’s charisma (celebrity character) did not change the endorsee’s evaluation. Celebrity endorsement research questionnaire is very useful for gathering the essential feedback through different sources to finalize a most popular celebrity. 27 No. Advertisements featuring celebrities tend to increase the value of the company on the stock exchange, as such advertisements also influence investors’ perceptions of the endorsed company (Agrawal and Kamakura, 1995). Despite the generally positive aspects of endorsement on the evaluation of general products, as has been verified in other studies (Choi and Rifon, 2012; Silva et al., 2015), in some cases celebrities cannot substantially help promote products (Knoll and Matthes, 2017; Sliburyte, 2009). As in previous studies, participants had to answer questions about their involvement with the program, and people who did not watch or did not know the participants were excluded from the study. In the context of a reality show, if the coach – an established celebrity endorser – is perceived as someone who considers all candidates as favorites, indiscriminately, this endorsement to the aspiring celebrity may lose its strength. Kahle,L. 29 No. 544-569. Sliburyte, L. (2009), “How can celebrities be used in advertising to the best advantage?”, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. Despite the evidence that celebrity endorsers are viewed as more credible and more attractive than non-celebrity endorsers, advertisers generally accept that the effectiveness of celebrity endorsements in advertising can be enhanced by matching the unique qualities of an endorser with that of a product (Lynch and Schuler, 1994). 29 No. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 24 (5), pp.449-461. Brands can also reflect human dimensions of personality, based on the evaluation of consumers (Aaker, 1997). Friedman, H. and Friedman, L. (1979), “Endorser effectiveness by product type”, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 1114-1128. the celebrity endorser (Fleck et al., 2012). 2, pp. Louie, T., Kulik, R. and Jacobson, R. (2001), “When bad things happen to the endorsers of good products”, Marketing Letters, Vol. 15, No. For this study, we used a 2 × 2 full factorial design between subjects (Candidates: Strong vs weak) × (Celebrity Endorser: well evaluated celebrity vs poorly evaluated celebrities). Visit emeraldpublishing.com/platformupdate to discover the latest news and updates, Answers to the most commonly asked questions here, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul. 1, pp. These media have provided a new method for creating aspiring celebrities (Keel and Nataraajan, 2012). and Hutchinson, J.W. Also, several authors have investigated a series of related factors, such as the effect of celebrity endorsement on product recall, the effect of the credibility and expertise of the celebrity endorsement and the effect of celebrity image (Amos et al., 2008). 57-78. 63-71. celebrity attributes created through celebrities’ role in soci-ety transfer to associated objects (McCracken1989). Celebrity Endorsement can have an impact on the world of advertising, depending on the personality and popularity of the celebrity. Um, N.-H. (2013), “Celebrity scandal fallout: how attribution style can protect the sponsor”, Psychology & Marketing, Vol. 1, pp. Spry, A., Pappu, R. and Cornwell, T.B. Congruence and charisma effects on celebrity endorsement are essential in terms of advertising effectiveness (Fleck et al., 2012). 3, pp. The presence of an attractive woman elevates testosterone and physical risk taking in … 19 No. The findings of this study are similar to those found by Silva et al. 1, pp. Also, and as expected, the strong participant (best rated) was not affected by the overexposure of his coach in the program. The study was conducted with 193 viewers of the show, with an average age of 28.3 (19-62). Several factors are considered when choosing a celebrity endorser or brand sponsor, when attempting to establish a campaign for the brand: fame – wide recognition by consumers or by specific groups; adjustment – combination or match between brand attributes and celebrity attributes regarding consumer perceptions; financial features – costs and returns from the use of celebrities as endorsers; and. 15-30. However, to understand this phenomenon, it was necessary to isolate the effect of attitude toward celebrity, indicating that – despite the fact that congruence affects the assessment in the case of an aspiring new celebrity – celebrity endorser image plays a key role in the celebrity endorsement effect. Thus future research may consider using another type of product. The ARF is the premier advertising industry association for creating, aggregating, synthesising and sharing the knowledge required by decision makers to lead and succeed. celebrity but it is tough to establish a strong association between the product and the endorser. Within the scope of the study, first housing advertisements published from 2001 to 2016 have … Dr Vipul Jain Abstract : The practice of celebrities being used for rendering services other than performing their actual job as either an actor or an athlete, such as endorsements has proliferated over time. 209-234. 93-105. The level of congruence refers to how consistent are the endorser’s most relevant features with the product’s most important attributes (Fleck et al., 2012; Huston et al., 2003; Misra and Beatty, 1990). As for the strongest candidate, the assessment was the same regardless of the level of exposure of the endorser celebrity used. H1: As compared with non-celebrity endorsements or no For example, in one of the scenarios, the text emphasized how candidate and coach shared the same musical style. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of this celebrity endorsement, as well as the effect of different contexts on endorsement. The stimuli were defined by the researchers, and Sam Alves was chosen as the contender (Strong Brand), for being one of the most popular candidates and most downloaded on the official website of the program. Assessing Celebrity Endorsement Effects in China Kineta Hung , Kimmy W. Chan , Caleb H. Tse Journal of Advertising Research Dec 2011, 51 (4) 608-623; DOI: 10.2501/JAR-51-4-608-623 (2008), “Building brand identity in competitive markets”, Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. Erdogan, B., Baker, Z. and Tagg, M.J. (2001), “Selecting celebrity endorsers: the practitioner’s perspective”, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. The result of this study showed that celebrity endorsement would not directly affect purchase intention, though celebrity endorsement can enhance brand attitude and brand credibility which in turn increase purchase intention.This study only focused on apparel products. These questionnaires are initiated by the external parties or by the PR agencies. In both studies, it was once again possible to identify the influence of contextual factors on the endorsement, in a context of established celebrities endorsing aspiring celebrities. Marketers consider the featuring of celebrities in ads a magnet that attracts consumers to the brand through glamor. 690-703. According to the authors, a well-evaluated, recognizable brand does not need celebrity endorsement because the effect of such endorsement would not add significant value to brands perceived as strong by consumers. This can be achieved through musical style, regionality, physical appearance, etc. Despite the generally positive aspects of endorsement on the evaluation of products, in some cases, celebrities cannot substantially help promote products. According to the results, the celebrity endorsement influences not only the assessment of the candidate in the program but also the intention to consume future work (music and television shows) by this candidate. © 2018, Otávio Freire, Filipe Quevedo-Silva, Diego Senise and Pedro Scrivano. 29 No. With the broad popularization of the internet, social networks, social media and reality television, it has been proposed that there has been an extension of the concept of celebrity, so that through these new media, ordinary people can also achieve such status. 4, pp. Ambroise, L., Pantin-Sohier, G., Valette-Florence, P. and Albert, N. (2014), “From endorsement to celebrity co-branding: personality transfer”, Journal of Brand Management, Vol. 56-62. Opinions expressed by Forbes Contributors are their own. The final sample of this first study was 100 viewers, who were assigned to a 2 (celebrity endorsement: With endorsement vs No endorsement) × 1 (Participant of the program The Voice Brazil) condition. Huston, C.R., D’ouville, E. and Willis, T.H. 4, pp. The instrument was similar to that used in previous studies. However, to isolate the effect of attitude toward the celebrity, we conducted an ANCOVA. In addition, when considering the scenario where the endorsing celebrity has a positive image, the evaluation of the weak endorsed candidate rises to the same level as the strong participant. Consumers also show a more favorable attitude toward the advertisement, as compared to celebrities who endorse many products. 36 No. 178-210. 4, pp. 9, pp. Ghodeswar, B.M. The final sample of Study 2 was 152 individuals. 4-12. However, the current image of the celebrity endorser should be taken into account when choosing the endorser, as a bad reputation (Louie et al., 2001) may decrease the effectiveness of the endorsement or even reverse this effect. 4, pp. (2017), “The effectiveness of celebrity endorsements: a meta-analysis”, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. However, and as expected, the congruence level with the celebrity endorser had no effect on the strongest participant (best rated). A larger JAR archive is accessible at WARC, alongside case studies, best practice guides, marketing intelligence, consumer insight, industry trends and latest news from around the world. Cultural foundations of the endorsement process, Publicizing private lives: celebrities, image control and the reconfiguration of public space, Celebrity spokesperson and brand congruence, an assessment of recall and affect, On explaining and predicting the effectiveness of celebrity endorsers, Do PSAs take a bite out of shark week? Carrillat, F.A., D’astous, A. and Lazure, J. 2, pp. For this study, we used a full factorial design between subjects, 2 (candidates: Strong vs Weak) × 2 (Celebrity Endorser: Overexposed vs Not Overexposed). Silva, L.A., Lopes, E.L., Freire, O. and Silva, D. (2015), “The brand’s effect on the evaluation of advertising endorsed by celebrities: an experimental study”, Brazilian Business Review, Vol. Celebrity endorsement is a phenomenon widely used by companies and studied by researchers. When you wish upon a star. 6, pp. If the celebrity endorser is careful in his or her statements of favoritism, the power of endorsement remains. The meaning of celebrity endorsement is “a form of brand or advertising campaign that involves a well-known person using … International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 3, Issue 11, November 2013 1 ISSN 2250-3153 www.ijsrp.org Influence of Celebrity Endorsement on … Manipulation check confirmed that Sam Alves is perceived as stronger than Gabby Moura [MSam Alves = 5.5 (1.6) and = MGabby Morua 4.5 (1.6); p < 0.01], and that participants in the congruent scenario evaluated the celebrity as more congruent with the candidate than participants in the incongruent setting [MCongruent Endorser = 4.9 (2.1) and MIncongruent Endorser = 3.9 (2.0); p < 0.01]. 651-662. 2, pp. This article focuses on five aspects: to examine the present status of literature available on the effect of celebrity endorsement on consumer buying behaviour; to identify whether there is any association between the three groups of consumers (supporters/neutral/opposers of celebrity endorsement); … As all candidates on The Voice usually have a coach, to select participants for the condition “no endorsement”, after evaluating the candidate they had to select who the candidate’s coach was from a list of celebrities. These contrasting results demonstrate how celebrity endorsement is complex and can be influenced by several variables. Fortune, 66-71. and Fowler, K. (2015), “Examining the impact of brand transgressions on consumers’ perceptions of celebrity endorsers”, Journal of Advertising, Vol. The evaluation of a strong candidate (best rated) does not depend on congruence with the celebrity endorser. When choosing a celebrity to endorse another, it is necessary to emphasize the possible associations between them for the public, and constantly monitor the reputation of the celebrity vis-à-vis consumers and ensure that there is no overexposure of the celebrity, as the effect of the endorsement will be less effective if the same celebrity endorses several aspirants to a new celebrity. The results of the study show that the weakest candidate was better evaluated when the celebrity endorser was not perceived as overexposed. 30 No. It addresses the consumer need from a psychological angle. 377-390. Celebrity endorsement in advertising is grounded in a common marketing assumption: Corporations have realized for some time that celebrity endorsers can enhance advertisement credibility and liking as well as brand image, awareness, and purchase behavior. In addition, by developing its own image and reputation, the aspiring new celebrity receives less influence from the endorser. 639-650. and Lehmann, D.R. If this occurs, the object captures consumers’ attention, assisting in the processing and selection of information to be considered in the perception of the object. 2, pp. Such a questionnaire can be conducted in the form of an open public poll and online survey. ... International Journal of Ad- vertising , 27(2). ), reality shows and new entertainment programming formats. Thus, knowing how to manage their career from the very beginning can be decisive to guarantee both longer and profitable careers. The purpose of Study 3 was to analyze whether different celebrity congruence levels also affect the evaluation of an aspiring new celebrity. Four studies involving 664 respondents were conducted to analyze the effectiveness of the endorsement. This phenomenon is triggered by automaticity and by the level of evaluation for that particular object – in this case, people and brands (Alba and Hutchinson, 1987). Confirming H2 of this study, the weak candidate (weak brand) was better assessed on intention to consume her music when spectators positively evaluated the celebrity endorser (positive attitude toward celebrity) (Mwith Well Evaluated Celebrity = 5.6 (1.0) and Mwith Poorly Evaluated Celebrity = 4.3 (1.6); p < 0.01), as compared to her performance in the program (Mwith Well Evaluated Celebrity = 5.1 (1.5) Mwith Poorly Evaluated Celebrity = 3.4 (2.0); p < 0.01). (2013), “For better, for worse? Bergkvist, L. and Zhou, K.Q. The evaluation of a strong candidate (best rated) does not depend on the level of overexposure of the celebrity endorser. This case study examines the use of celebrity endorsement in the formation of the retail image of leading European grocery distribution group J. Sainsbury, in particular, the process of transference of celebrity images to the product’s image. You can join in the discussion by joining the community or logging in here.You can also find out more about Emerald Engage. An online questionnaire was used, and the link was distributed on an online panel provided and maintained by a national research institute. 201-214. To select an appropriate celebrity, the advertiser or marketer should take into account, among other factors, the longevity of the campaign, the acceptance of the celebrity and their relevance, the target consumer’s opinion on the use of celebrities for communication and the receptivity of the target consumer when associating the celebrity with the product or brand. First, participants had to answer questions about their involvement with the program, and people who did not watch, or did not know the participant, were excluded from the study. The results of the study show that the weaker candidate was better evaluated when there was congruence between her and the celebrity endorser. First, the endorsing celebrity’s charisma influences the evaluation of the endorsed new celebrity. 2, pp. 6, pp. Thus, it is expected that: A weak candidate (worst rated) endorsed by a congruent celebrity will be better assessed than a weak candidate endorsed by an incongruent celebrity. Researchers found that much of this effect results from consumers’ associations between the celebrity and the endorsed object (Choi and Rifon, 2012; Till and Shimp, 1998). Keeping Up With The Evolving World Of Celebrity Endorsement. Consumers generally perceive and react to stimuli generated by people just as they do in relation to brands. Participants then assessed the candidate using a series of questions. 954-961. A brand aims, among other factors, to differentiate the product from other offerings and to add value, contributing to achieving competitive advantage (Keller and Lehmann, 2006; Aaker, 1991). Manipulation check confirmed that Sam Alves is perceived as a stronger candidate than Gabby Moura [MSam Alves = 5.6 (1.5) and MGabby Moura = 4.7 (1.5); p < 0.01]. Sherman, S. P. (1985, August 19). Celebrity Endorsement: A Literature Review. The concept of congruence is known as finding the best match between the product and any associated variable. This article focuses on five aspects: to examine the present status of literature available on the effec... Impact of Celebrity Endorsement on Consumer Buying Behaviour in the State of Goa - Karuna Krishna Gauns, Subhash Kizhakanveatil Bhaskaran Pillai, Kaustubh Kamat, Ruey Feng Chen, Ling-Chen Chang, 2018. 35 No. 18, No. (2013), “The moderating role of celebrity worship on attitudes toward celebrity brand extensions”, Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, Vol. 11 No. Knowing the influence that celebrities exert over consumers, companies are increasingly investing in their use in advertising, to persuade consumers (McNamara, 2009). The Cost of A Celebrity Endorsement Episode 26 1/15/2021 | PromoJournal Contributor, Flashback Tracks Flashback Tracks is a collection of audio clips from … In Studies 3 and 4, it was also possible to identify the effects of congruence (Fleck et al., 2012; Batra and Homer, 2004) and celebrity overexposure (Ilicic and Webster, 2011; Subhadip, 2012). 4, pp. Even though there is a lot of literature about celebrity endorsement, no research has been made up to now about how this method is used in the housing market. 954-961. Aaker, D. (1991), Managing Brand Equity, The Free Press, New York, NY. Participants who chose correctly associated the candidate with his or her celebrity coach (“endorsement”). Another common fact within the historical context in risk strategy is the loss of relevance that celebrities can suffer with the media after the endorsement contract has been signed (Luo et al., 2010). On the other hand, the weakest candidate (worst evaluated brand) was better evaluated when the endorsing celebrity coach was rated as having a positive image by the participant, rather than a negative image, confirming H2 of this study. Published in RAUSP Management Journal. (1995), “The economic worth of celebrity endorsers: an event study analysis”, Academic Research Library, Vol. Celebrity Endorsement And Its Impact On Sales: A Research Analysis Carried Out In India. 1, pp. Celebrity is also perceived to be more credible and trustworthy to be representing a brand that is specifically matched with the celebrity’s image. Thomas, V.L. and Royne, M.B. (2014), “Do PSAs take a bite out of shark week? Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences,130, 11-20. Kim, Y. and Na, J. To give greater validity to the study, all studies were conducted during season two of the program The Voice Brazil, in which candidates compete for the preference of the public while seeking successful careers in the music industry. Prominent celebrities in their professional areas do not only lend their names to endorse products and services; their own production can be understood as endorsed by their names. The purpose of Study 1 is to analyze whether the effect of celebrity endorsement also occurs in the evaluation of an aspiring new celebrity, as it does with tangible products. 39-48. 4, pp. In order to ease this challenge, this paper explores the celebrity endorsement literature. This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) licence. 1, pp. Overall, with this paper, the authors contribute to the knowledge of celebrity endorsement, to fill the gap pointed out in recent studies in the field over the effectiveness of this effect, and above all the moderator variables that can influence or even annul this effect (Knoll and Matthes, 2017; Amos, et al., 2008). 11 No. 45 No. Mowen, J.C. and Brown, S.W. Celebrity endorsements are a popular way for marketers to promote their brands, products, and services. The economic worth of celebrity endorsers: an event study analysis, From endorsement to celebrity co-branding: personality transfer, Exploring the relationship between celebrity endorser effects and advertising effectiveness. and Evans, S.D. Similarly, a new product launched on the market with the endorsement of a celebrity with credibility in the area can also improve its reception. Rumschisky, A. Several authors have demonstrated the relevance of the positive relationship between the celebrity endorser and the advertised product (Batra and Homer, 2004; Misra and Beatty, 1990). 9, pp. 318-330. Celebrity endorsement efficacy is sustained by credibility, expertise and attractiveness (Ohanian, 1991). 55-75. Celebrity endorsement for consumer products is widely used in advertising, taking advantage of the public's fascination with celebrities and the belief in a personal connection with them. 411-454. Rockwell, D. and Giles, D.C. (2009), “Being a celebrity: a phenomenology of fame”, Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, Vol. The participants who failed to choose the correct coach were assigned to the condition “no endorsement”. The purpose of Study 2 is to analyze whether the effect of the brand on celebrity endorsement also occurs in the evaluation of an aspiring new celebrity, and whether the influence of the celebrity image has an effect. 1, pp. 195-231. This research contributes to the knowledge of celebrity endorsement to fill the lack pointed out in previous studies in the field over the effectiveness of this effect and, above all, the moderator variables that can influence or even annul this effect. Regarding the strongest candidate, the evaluation was the same regardless of congruence with celebrity endorser. Study 1 showed that when endorsed by an established celebrity, an aspiring new celebrity was better rated than when he or she lacked endorsement. Aspiring celebrities that are not very well known by spectators can benefit from celebrity endorsement. In addition, aligned with a proposal for future studies from Knoll and Matthes (2017), we sought to understand the effects of brand, charisma, congruence and celebrity exposure on the effectiveness of the endorsement, and therefore on the spectators’ attitudes and behavioral intentions in this context. (2015), where the brand factor – in this case, the candidate’s own image – moderates the celebrity endorsement effect. 882-909. (2011), “Celebrity endorsement, brand credibility and brand equity”, European Journal of Marketing, Vol. Furthermore, celebrities can work as the personification of a brand, creating bonds and facilitating connections with consumers (Thomson, 2006). The stimulus was presented, and participants assessed the candidates on the same scales as previous studies. As in previous studies, first, the participants answered questions about their involvement with the program, and people who did not watch or did not know the participants were excluded from the study. The authors demonstrated that the differences found in the studies may have occurred due to moderating variables, such as the endorser type (Wei and Lu, 2013), congruence (Silva et al., 2015) or endorser sex (Bergkvist and Zhou, 2016). 211-220. 3, pp. 1, pp. Also, they may create new products and extend their product lines (Kowalczyk and Royne, 2013; Luo et al., 2010). Credibility refers to the confidence that the celebrity conveys to the public; expertise is linked to the knowledge and experience that the endorser has on a certain subject; and attractiveness is associated with physical appearance, beauty and sympathetic nature. Journal of Marketing Management: Vol. 21 No. Very famous actors, models, athletes and singers are all considered celebrities (Friedman and Friedman, 1979). McNamara, K. (2009), “Publicizing private lives: celebrities, image control and the reconfiguration of public space”, Social and Cultural Geography, Vol. This result is interesting and contributes to studies about brand (Silva et al., 2015), and in particular those focused on the possible effects of the brand on endorsers (Thomas and Fowler, 2015). Investigated the effectiveness of celebrity endorsers: an event study analysis ”, Psychology & Marketing Vol! Did not change the endorsee ’ s charisma influences the evaluation of endorsement. “ Dilution and enhancement of celebrity endorsement is complex and can be conducted in company! Impacts consumer purchase intentions ( Wei and Lu, 2013 ) as compared to celebrities who endorse many.. Other researchers to work with different kinds of brands and categories of products, and as expected, the level. Chose correctly associated the candidate using a Likert scale ranging from 1 ( 2 ) is! 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